The term ‘cardiometabolic risk’ defines a person’s odds of suffering a cardiovascular event, for example heart attack or stroke when more than one risk factors are also present. Some major risk factors include the following:
- High LDL (“bad”) cholesterol,
- High blood fat (triglycerides),
- Low HDL (“good”) cholesterol,
- High blood pressure,
- Diabetes, as well as
- Smoking tobacco.
Each one of these risk factors is dangerous on its own, however a combination significantly increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Individuals who are suffering from the risk factors above can have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The severity of these risk factors, as well as the number of them, impacts how high that risk is.
Other conditions which can potentially increase risk for heart disease include the following:
- Kidney disease,
- Inflammatory diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis),
- A familial history of early-onset heart disease or stroke, as well as
- Early menopause.
Particular ethnic groups could also have a higher risk for heart disease. It is very important to discuss risk factors with your doctor so that they can assist with giving you an estimate of your risk for developing a heart attack or stroke, and so that they are able to work with you to minimise that risk.
Risk Factors And HIIT Training
In the past, physical activity guidelines have focused on moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). More recently these guidelines have included resistance training.
From the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee (PAGAC) Scientific Report, there has been resurgence in interest and usage of interval training. HIIT training is one type of interval training which has progressively increased in popularity among physically active individuals. In addition, it has garnered scientific research.
In addition, the media presents HIIT training as an alternative means by which individuals are able to achieve health benefits that are similar to those of MICT. Some have even suggested because HIIT consumes less overall time per week, that it might be an appealing long-term strategy by which to attain the health benefits of regular physical activity.
Studies support that HIIT can improve cardiorespiratory fitness (increase VO2 max) in adults with varied body weight and health status.
HIIT training-induced improvements in:
- Insulin sensitivity,
- Blood pressure, and
- Body composition.
These improvements occur more consistently take place in adults with overweight or obesity classification. This is especially if people train for 12 or more weeks. These HIIT training-induced improvements in cardiometabolic disease risk are comparable to those achievable with MICT.
Healthy adults who have normal weight, as well as lower risk of cardiometabolic disease, do not usually show improvements in insulin sensitivity, blood pressure in addition to body composition with HIIT.
Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) involves a group of interrelated abnormalities (such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension) which increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in addition to type 2 diabetes.
This is a common metabolic disorder that grows in prevalence as the population becomes more obese. CMS was first introduced as a diagnostic category in order to identify individuals who may respond to lifestyle changes and drug treatment when needed, with the aim of decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus.
CMS is a major medical problem. Scientific research needs to focus on addressing the diverse constellation of risk factors and pinpoint a new care model which takes an integrated approach to treating these risk factors across different populations.
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